UC improves the efficiency cycle to around 90% from 80% [4]. The field-oriented control (FOC) algorithm needs accurate estimation of motor state variables in order to ensure full-torque performances and good efficiency of IM. Medium- and long-term sales of hybrid vehicles. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Vinay k m#1, Isaac Raju#2 #1Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CBIT kolar, India. It may result in huge losses for an individual if not wary. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.10.030, Naseri F, Farjah E, Ghanbari T (2017) An efficient regenerative braking system based on battery/supercapacitor for electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with BLDC motor. A high-capacity compact power module (J1 series) has been developed with compact size, high performance, lightweight and low self-inductance [72]. Electr Power Syst Res 75:153–160. There are three topologies of ZSIs, namely basic, bidirectional and high-performance ZSI [64]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.07.013, Ashtiani C, Wright R, Hunt G (2006) Ultracapacitors for automotive applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 52:2138–2147, Wang S, Zhan Q, Ma Z, Zhou L (2005) Implementation of a 50-kW four-phase switched reluctance motor drive system for hybrid electric vehicle. Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Iyer B, Mangaleswaran R et al (2017) The future of mobility in India: challenges & opportunities for the auto component industry. In: 2003 IEEE Bol powertech—conf proc vol, 3, pp 728–733. In this control strategy, UC provides fast dynamic power, and the complement is provided by the battery bank [150], as shown in Fig. This topology shows a good performance, especially for the controllability of current flow. PVHEVs are still in infant stage and being explored to minimize gasoline consumption and maximize the usage of renewable energy. It is to achieve better fuel economy and reduce toxic emissions. Comparisons between various costs involved in vehicle are as follows: Fuel costs The main difference between EVs and ICVs is their fuel source, ICVs run on gasoline, while EVs run on electricity. In: 13th Eur conf power electron appl, Moon A (2016) Analysis of boost converter and interleaved converter for permanent magnet synchronous motor of hybrid electrical vehicle. The implementation of HESS has at least three major advantages: cheaper batteries, increased autonomy and extended lifetime [143, 144]. IEE Proc-Electric Power Appl 150:139–145. Expensive The major concern that holds back the buyer’s intention to purchase a hybrid vehicle is its cost that makes it $5000–$10000 costlier than conventional cars. Direct torque control (DTC) in an IM to achieve better performance has been shown in [250]. In: IEEE energy convers congr expo (ECCE), pp 2833–2839. The fuzzy logic (FL)-based EMS in a HESS for longer battery life was also adopted. (2013) Solar based hybrid electric powered wheel chair, pp 18–24. IEEE, pp 376–381, Zhang X, Chau KT, Yu C, Chan CC (2008) An optimal solar-thermoelectric hybrid energy system for hybrid electric vehicles. 1–7, Adachi S, Yoshida S, Miyata H et al (2016) Automotive power module technologies for high speed switching. https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2013.6699133, Koushki B, Student I, Ghaisari J, Member I (2009) A voltage reference design for three-phase boost inverter. The proposed scheme is immune to the variation in stator resistance. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0389-4304(99)00017-X, Yavasoglu HA, Member S, Shen J, Member S (2015) Power split control strategy for an EV powertrain with two propulsion machines. Keywords: Hybrid Electric Vehicle… Optimal control ideas based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) have become mature techniques for maximizing the fuel efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles … IEEE, pp 1–10, Wolfs P, Quan Li (2006) A current-sensor-free incremental conductance single cell MPPT for high performance vehicle solar arrays. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.044, Snoussi J, Elghali S Ben, Outbib R, Mimouni MF (2015) Model predictive control for hybrid battery/ultracapacitor power supply used in vehicular applications. https://doi.org/10.1109/EVS.2013.6914717, Li X, Williamson SS (2008) Efficiency and suitability analyses of varied drive train architectures for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. The UCs are also responsible to reduce the sulfation in lead acid batteries for EVs [106]. http://www.emic-bg.org/files/Global_Market_Analysis_of_Plug_in_Hybrid_Electric.pdf. IEEE Trans Power Electron 33(4):3672–3680 10.1109/tpel.2017.2712065, Bucher A, Schmidt R, Werner R et al (2016) Design of a full SiC voltage source inverter for electric vehicle applications siemens AG, eCar Powertrain Systems Keywords. In: Proc IEEE int electr mach drives conf (IEMDC), pp 941–945. This technique reduces the current ripple, thermal stress under heavy load and boosts the output. 1–62, IEA (2009) Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, the electric drive establishes a market foothold. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57:660–668. The final nail in the coffin is that the materials used in the creation of the battery itself are hazardous to the environment, hence vitiating the ultimate objective of being a green technology. JSAE Rev 20:337–341. IMs offer a higher power density and better efficiency when compared to the DC machine. The bidirectional converter is essential in hybrid vehicles to convert DC from the battery/UC/fuel cell (FC) or their combination into AC that is given to the motor drive. In: International conference on electrical, electronics, and optimization techniques (ICEEOT), pp 4298–4303. The techniques based on flux-weakening control are complex and costly. The new design of IM for EVs was proposed with improved speed torque curve in [228]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2011.2140315, Cajander D, Le-Huy H (2006) Design and optimization of a torque controller for a switched reluctance motor drive for electric vehicles by simulation. https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2222649, Li W, Cao J, Zhang X (2010) Electrothermal analysis of induction motor with compound cage rotor used for PHEV. While designing ESS mechanisms like high temperature, over charge/discharge and under-/overvoltage protection schemes, cell balancing and their redistribution should be considered [122, 123]. In contrast to this, a Honda Accord, which is a traditional vehicle, would cost ~ $35,709. A DC/DC converter can be used to regulate the voltage of the PV arrays by MPPT using the IC method [287]. P&O- as well as IC-based techniques can be used to handle variable solar irradiance. https://doi.org/10.1109/JESTPE.2016.2632743, Mohamed AAS, Berzoy A, Mohammed OA (2017) Experimental validation of comprehensive steady-state analytical model of bidirectional wpt system in EVs applications. However, the continuous input current by VF-ZSI is suitable for photovoltaic (PV) applications. In [6] the HEV’s architecture has been classified into six different categories, which are mild/microparallel, parallel, series, power split, combined and through-the-road (TTR) hybrids. It’s an interesting time for anyone associated with or interested in electric vehicles, both from an industry and consumer perspective. IEEE Trans Magn 33:4086–4088. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2015.2445872, Koushki B, Safaee A, Jain P, Bakhshai A (2014) Review and comparison of bi-directional AC-DC converters with V2G capability for on-board EV and HEV.In: IEEE transp electrif conf expo, pp 1–6. Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Electric cars “will be cheaper than conventional vehicles by 2022”| Environment| The Guardian. 5. In: Indian Control Conf (ICC) 2016—proc, pp 66–71. The automobile industry plays a significant role in economic growth of the world and hence affects the entire population. Figure 8 depicts the battery pricings over the next 12 years, and it can be inferred that by 2022, EVs are likely to cost the same as ICE vehicle equivalent. Google Scholar, Sandy Thomas CE (2009) Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. It is evident that HEVs in the midsize market are already price competitive and are affordable choices [301,302,303,304]. The specification of the motor/generator depends on its usage, like in light/medium/heavy duty vehicles, off/on highway vehicles and locomotives. The sudden load variations are absorbed by the UC, and hence efficient use of the batteries can be achieved [120, 121]. 8 presents the conclusion and recommendation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.08.008, Burke A, Miller M (2011) The power capability of ultracapacitors and lithium batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. ISSN print. In: Int conf electr mach syst, pp 1401–1405, Salmasi FR, Najafabadi TA, Maralani PJ (2010) An adaptive flux observer with online estimation of dc-link voltage and rotor resistance for VSI-Based induction motors. Proc IEEE 95:746–765. However, considering the trade-off based on performance, robustness, reliability and cost, the choice is often between induction motor and permanent magnet AC motor. Energy Convers Manag 49:3578–3584. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 27:970–976. In: IEEE int symp ind electron, pp 1689–1695. A combined control structure of IPMSMs to achieve true maximum voltage utilization is proposed in [247]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2016.2599153, Gautam AK, Singh SP, Pandey JP, Shukla TN (2016) Performance investigation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive supplied from hybrid sources. Battery issues The battery plays a vital role in HEV performance. It is expected that EVs can be made affordable by 2022 even if the conventional cars improve their fuel efficiency by 3.5% a year. Appl Energy 196:268–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.07.004, Lopes LAC, Soleimanpour N (2015) Power losses balancing in a three-level NPC converter driving a PMSM in an electric vehicle. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 64:4942–4953. J Power Sources 158:1140–1148. IEEE, pp 1–6, El-Saady G, Sharaf AM, Makky AM et al. 2007. They provide an optimal solution and a realistic driving scenario. MPPT algorithms based on the ant colony optimization, FL, ANN, GA and PSO, have been applied to PV systems under changing irradiance conditions. This configuration was also considered for the analysis of hybrid lithium high-energy battery [12]. A pressure command control method of engine clutch in a parallel-type HEV is demonstrated in [248], where a dynamic model of an HEV powertrain was also constructed to launch operation with engine power only. The PHEVs mainly work in charge depletion (CD) mode where SOC is depleted up to a threshold level. Edwin Verheujen, Jan Jabben. Int J Veh Technol 160510:1–19. A compact diagnostic algorithm is presented using advanced speed feedback error management technique for traction motor and generator faults in [237]. A new type of control strategy known as the nouveau for CSI in battery-driven electric vehicle (BEV) has been proposed in [56] for better harmonic performance of the electrical machine. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 28:893–899. In: IEEE int symp ind electron—Septe, pp 1260–1265. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2012.2226856, Hafner M, Finken T, Felden M, Hameyer K (2011) Automated virtual prototyping of permanent magnet synchronous machines for HEVs. The disadvantage of complex hybrid is its complexity in design. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2038268, Feng G, Lai C (2016) Current injection based On line parameter and VSI nonlinearity estimation for PMSM drives using current and voltage DC components 7782: 1–9. Energy Convers Manag 78:237–244. https://doi.org/10.1109/ciec.2016.7513821, Roche M, Shabbir W, Evangelou S (2016) Voltage control for enhanced power electronic efficiency in series hybrid electric vehicles. J Power Sour 193:376–385. Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promising options for future transportation. J Terramechanics 69:33–43. Compared to the traditional ICE, a battery is more susceptible to variations in temperature and is heavier. The Seeker optimization algorithm has been presented in [161] to minimize the torque ripple of SRM. Maintenance costs The complex structure of HEV leads to high maintenance cost along with it and also gives rise to the need of highly skilled technicians and mechanics for repair. To circumvent these problems a multispeed winding is designed with sensorless control and presented in [182]. In: Conf proc IEEE appl power electron conf expo (APEC), pp 3205–3211. The share of these vehicles globally is increased from 0.5% in 2014 to 1.7% in 2017. Google Scholar. In [255], a consensus based on the total amount of cooperative tracking control has been developed to maintain total torque needed for traction. 5e. In [22], a parallel active topology was used with a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) which has been implemented for online energy management of an EV. The various structures of PV systems and their suitability in hybrid vehicles have been discussed in [265,266,267,268,269]. The performance of BLDC motor was evaluated in terms of rise time, setting time and overshoot using topologies like fuzzy, PI and their hybrid in [195]. H Index. Conclusions are discussed finally. ET An adaptive FL-based EMS is used to determine the power split between the battery and the UC pack. This topology was used in [148] to reduce the conduction and switching losses and to improve the accuracy. But such batteries invite a whole set of problems, such as its high sensitivity to external environment, weight and cost. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 6:659–674. A multistage fast design methodology for SRM is presented in [162]. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2005.1528929, Shen C, Shan P, Gao T (2011) A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicles. https://doi.org/10.1109/20.619671, Adeoye AOM, Oladapo BI, Adekunle AA et al (2017) Design, simulation and implementation of a PID vector control for EHVPMSM for an automobile with hybrid technology. https://doi.org/10.1109/icelmach.2014.6960155, Niu G, Liu S (2018) Demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for permanent magnet-driven traction systems. This vehicle depletes the battery first, and only when the battery is depleted, turns the ICE on to power the vehicle. In: 18th Eur conf power electron appl EPE 2016 ECCE Eur. Chen and Cheng [190] used a low-voltage BLDC motor/alternator with modified converter design in hybrid electric scooters. The various motor drives used in EV and HEV have been proposed in [34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45]. The analysis indicates that these effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions [221]. A double-stator permanent magnet BLDC (PMBLDC) was engaged for HEV application in [180]. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 53:241–246. IN: IEEE students’ conference on electrical, electronics and computer science, pp 1-6, Asensio M, Magallán G, De Angelo C (2016) Experimental evaluation of different semi-active configurations for battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS). There have been improvements apropos of this variable. Audi is betting on the luxury market in a new electric-vehicle venture with China’s oldest car maker Published: Jan. 20, 2021 at 3:12 p.m. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2013.2289856, Zhang G, Hua W, Cheng M et al. http://www.fame-india.gov.in/ViewNotificationDetails.aspx?RowId=5. desired vehicle torque and the ICE must be started to help meet that immediate torque demand. A rule-based control algorithm was proposed to effectively manage the UC’s SOC and offload the current peaks from the battery in [131, 132]. Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Singh S (2018) Global electric vehicle market looks to power up in 2018. A special Z network composed of two capacitors and two inductors connected to the well-known three-phase inverter bridge and allows working in buck or boost mode using the shoot‐through state. Invention of power converter topologies for drive control has advanced the traction systems for EVs over recent years. In: 2015 Conference on power, control, communication and computational technologies for sustainable growth (PCCCTSG), pp 266–270, Ni Q, Li Q, Zhu X, Yi D, Shi K (2015) Energy management control strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with brushless dual- rotor flux-switching permanent magnet motor. In order to provide more power or increase the distance, an ICE is coupled with the motor. IN: IECON Proc (Industrial Electron Conf), pp 187–192. As a baseline, a hybrid vehicle … IEEE Trans Veh Technol 48:1770–1778. In: 16th Eur Conf Power Electron Appl EPE-ECCE Eur, pp 1–9. The advantage of DC/DC converter is to have low component counts and a simplified structure. Hybrid is between an electric and conventional vehicle. 2. In case of P&O, the load impedance varies periodically and senses the change in the direction of power, whereas in IC, \(\frac{{{\text{d}}p}}{{{\text{d}}v}}\) is monitored to detect whether MPP has reached, where p is the power and v the voltage. At light loads and high frequency, these inverters have sluggish performance and stability problems. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.08.060, Guo Q, Zhang C, Li L et al (2016) Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous motor direct drive system. Appl Energy 88:442–448. (2015) Minimizing battery wear in a battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system using a linear quadratic regulator. All articles for this journal must be submitted using our online submissions system. The test area chosen is Mysore City, India in deriving the driving cycle. According to a study of the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute, the operating cost of EV is less than half of gas-powered cars. : https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd. Various possible configuration of UC and battery [146]. A dual-current loop control algorithm has been proposed for HEV in [236]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2015.2504406, Yin H, Zhou W, Li M et al (2016) An adaptive fuzzy logic based energy management strategy on battery/ultracapacitor hybrid electric vehicles. Tesla Gigafactory is currently 35% operational and aims to produce 50 GWh of batteries in 2018. In: 18th international conference on electrical machines and systems (ICEMS), pp 818–823, Ding S, Cheng M, Wang Z et al (2011) A hybrid energy source based double-stator permanent magnet brushless motor drive for hybrid electric vehicles. The results showed that the proposed two propulsion machines improved the powertrain efficiency by 5% as compared to one propulsion machine. 41:2003–2005, Bai J, Zheng P, Tong C et al (2015) Characteristic analysis and verification of the magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine. Energy Procedia 117:314–320. Battery should be able to supply high power over short periods and must be capable of enduring millions of transient shallow cycles over vehicle life. A low-frequency vehicle powertrain dynamics model was used to evaluate the vehicle dynamics, acceleration and braking performance of a racecar. https://doi.org/10.1109/spices.2015.7091466, Farzanehfard H, Beyragh DS, Adib E (2008) A bidirectional soft switched ultracapacitor interface circuit for hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. Hybrid and Electric Vehicles - 2019 The Electric Drive Hauls. Three levels of integration of battery packs are possible in vehicles: (1) singular battery cells, (2) modules, comprised of individual battery cell, and (3) battery packs, comprised of modules. The torque and air-gap flux of a doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) are controlled directly as compared to the singly fed permanent magnet. https://doi.org/10.1109/tapenergy.2015.7229671, Gao Yimin, Ehsani M, Miller J (2005) Hybrid electric vehicle: overview and state of the art. The boost half-bridge best meets the requirements of a bidirectional cell, thus suitable for battery/UC interface [146]. Reference [222] presents a sensorless algorithm designated for the emergency control of an interior PMSM drive. In: 3rd IEEE work wide bandgap power devices appl, pp 347–350. World Electric Vehicle Journal (WEVJ) WEVA publishes an international scientific journal called the World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653). A review of various components of HEVs like architecture, bidirectional converter, ESS, motors and MPPT has been presented, and the findings are summarized at the end of each topic in tabular form. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market reviews the performance, cost, safety, and sustainability of battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles … In the recent years, HEV technology has gained tremendous boost in terms of research and development. VSIs have good speed range, multiple motor controls from a single unit and a simple regulator design. IET Electr Syst Transp 4:122–131. As the battery SOC reaches a particular threshold, the PHEV behaves like a regular HEV, and the ICE kicks in and acts as a primary power source. In short, the Global Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Market report offers a one-stop solution to all the key players covering various aspects of the industry like growth statistics, development history, industry … A good work on the control of salient-pole PMSM for traction in hybrid vehicles has been presented in [254]. Electrical operation is mainly concerned with vehicle … In: Proceedings of PCIM Europe; international exhibition and conference for power electronics, intelligent motion, renewable energy and energy management, pp 19–21, Chau KT, Wong YS, Chan CC (1999) An overview of energy sources for electric vehicles. https://doi.org/10.1109/07ias.2007.351, Li X, Williamson SS (2008) Efficiency analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction motor-inverter drive for varied driving load demands. Impact on grid EVs and PHEVs mostly are charged by being plugged into the power outlet continuously for several hours. It is expected that the penetration of EV/PHEVs will be around 35–47% of the new cars by 2040. This is used to extract the maximum power with the help of a boost converter. The performance of a battery is affected by temperature variations; therefore, an efficient battery management system is required. 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